The genus Eliurus is the most speciose among native Malagasy rodents. Unfortunately, very little is known about its evolutionary history and its taxonomy is problematic. This project focused on a species complex within the genus, the E. antsingy and had two main objectives: (1) to contribute to the elucidation of taxonomic issues and evolutionary relationships among these species; and (2) to investigate the effects of both historical and contemporary factors on the evolution of Eliurus species found in a biogeographical transition zone located in northeastern Madagascar. Findings from this study will provide additional information that would help design conservation plans for this endemic genius. Project carried out by EEB Graduate Student JeanEric Rakotoarisoa.